Abstracts

 

Stella Anasi
Head, Acquisition Section
University of Lagos
NIGERIA
anasistella@yahoo.com

Ali Hussaini
Head, Information Technology Section
Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies
University of Lagos
NIGERIA
babanayashe@yahoo.com

Resource Sharing in the Digital Age: Challenges and Prospects in Nigerian University Libraries

The digital age has had a profound impact on the nature, volume and variety of information resources such that no single library alone can provide all the resources for effective service delivery to its users. The paradigm shift from being "all alone" to collaborating and sharing of resources with others is now a global phenomenon which university libraries in Nigeria cannot afford to ignore. Unfortunately, resource sharing among university libraries in Nigeria seems to be uncommon in spite of the prevailing information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the opportunities they proffer for effective resource sharing.

Using a descriptive survey research design, the authors will examine the effectiveness of Nigerian university libraries' attempts to foster cooperation and collaboration and the benefits derivable from these symbiotic relationships. They will investigate randomly selected librarians' perceptions of ICT capabilities to promote effective resource sharing. Factors that hinder effective sharing of resources and areas for capacity building will be identified. Solutions to the challenges will be proffered.

 

Tina Baich
Assistant Librarian
Interlibrary Services / Bibliographic & Metadata Services
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
USA
cbaich@iupui.edu

Opening Interlibrary Loan to Open Access: Locating and Managing Borrowing Requests for Open Access Materials

Even though open access materials are freely available on the internet, library users still request them through interlibrary loan. In 2009, IUPUI University Library began tracking borrowing requests for open access materials. As the number of requests filled with open access documents continues to grow, IUPUI University Library is able to provide a service to users and cost savings for the library by utilizing this material. In this presentation, I will discuss the data regarding IUPUI University Library open access borrowing requests and demonstrate some of the most commonly used online resources for locating open access materials. I will also discuss how IUPUI University Library tracks requests for open access materials and notifies library users of availability.

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Markus Brammer
Head of Legal and Licence Affairs
German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB)
GERMANY
markus.brammer@tib.uni-hannover.de

The Effects of Copyright and Licensing Developments Upon German Document Delivery Services

The negative development of copyright law posed a new challenge for document delivery services in Germany since the statutory license in German copyright law no longer covers electronic document delivery provided by Subito and other library document delivery services completely. License agreements with publishers or intermediaries such as copyright clearance centers are now necessary to allow delivery of electronic documents. These negotiations have proven to be very complex and controversial, but now a complicated framework of license agreements has been concluded and will enable German libraries to generally provide electronic documents in the future. DRM systems, however, still are a challenge for customers and the delivery service.

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Ertugrul Cimen
Library Director
Kadir Has University
TURKEY
ecimen@khas.edu.tr

Future of Resource Sharing in Turkey: Can Open-Access be an Alternative?

Resource sharing activities in Turkey have gained momentum in recent years, but only with respect to the sharing of print materials. As global use of electronic resources becomes increasingly common and the sale of electronic books at amazon.com surpasses that of printed books, the concepts related to resource sharing will change around the world and the sharing of electronic resources will become a necessity.

Major publishers have begun adding clauses to their license agreements so as to identify how electronic content can be shared with other libraries' users. In response to this development, librarians are taking an increasingly active role in the preparation of new license agreements; in coming years, librarians and library consortia will have to lead a difficult negotiating process with publishers. Collaboration, resource sharing and document supply services in Turkey must be redesigned in the near future to include electronic resource sharing services.

The author will discuss what steps Turkish librarians should take to ensure they play a proactive and effective role during this restructuring and redesigning process. In this context, electronic resource sharing services and new approaches (e.g. open access) will be discussed based on the publishers' license agreements. Legal regulations, technological developments, user expectations and most importantly experience of Turkish librarians will be taken into account.

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Peter D. Collins
Assistant Project Manager, Borrow Direct
University of Pennsylvania
USA
pcoll@pobox.upenn.edu

Fear and Loathing in Cooperative Collection Development

Cooperative collecting is hindered by fear and ignorance: fear that resources not held locally will be inaccessible when needed and ignorance of how to strategically purchase in a heterogeneous environment. This paper will examine the success of Borrow Direct in making over 35 million volumes available for expedited delivery among the seven member partnership (soon to expand to 50 million volumes among nine institutions). Borrow Direct circulated over 146,000 books in FY10 and is on track to exceed that number for FY11. With a proven sharing model in place, cooperative collecting becomes a possibility, but where do librarians start? Cooperative collecting is dependent upon a rich data repository to inform collection decisions. The second part of this paper is forward looking and will examine how libraries can use a data repository to share and leverage data from local circulation, interlibrary loan, partnerships like Borrow Direct, and their user community to provide a roadmap for collection decisions. Specifically, the paper will outline what makes a successful data repository, what data sources will be required, and how data will be made available to inform collection decisions across the partnership

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Tom Delaney
Director of Rapid Outreach and Support
Colorado State University Libraries
USA
tgdelaney@rapidill.org

Michael Richins
Rapid Coordinator of Training and Customer Support
Colorado State University Libraries
USA
mike.richins@colostate.edu

RapidILL: Fast, Collaborative, and Cost-Effective Resource Sharing in Today's ILL World

Begun as a homegrown system serving 6 partner libraries, RapidILL has since expanded to one that processes about 1 million requests annually for over 200 partner libraries. Rapid produces a very high degree of cost savings at $5.41 per request (prior to numerous innovations and technological enhancements) according to the 2004 ARL cost study, a dramatic improvement in response time for photocopy requests, and a fill rate that has never been lower than 94%. Rapid is also system-neutral and interacts with ILLiad, Clio, Relais, and OCLC.

Rapid works with groups of libraries willing to meet specific service parameters, but must be priced attractively enough to attract the attention of a sufficient number of partners. The authors will explain the difficulties of developing a program that operates on a cost-recovery basis within the confines of a state-funded university system. This paper will evaluate costs, reasons that libraries have joined Rapid, and what makes RapidILL unique in the ILL world.

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Kristina Eden
Manager of MITS (Michigan Information Transfer Source)
University of Michigan
USA
keden@umich.edu

Anne Beaubien
Director, MLibrary Document Delivery
University of Michigan
USA
beaubien@umich.edu

HathiTrust: Digital Access as the Intersection of Interlibrary Lending Potential and the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

The HathiTrust Digital Library is a major repository and digitization project which grew out of the GoogleBooks scanning project. In addition to providing open access to public domain books, HathiTrust could potentially change ILL workflow and enable better international sharing of resources. With a collection of nearly 8 million items, HathiTrust is a significant digital resource and this paper will explore its impact on ILL.

Barriers to lending books internationally have included costly shipping charges, institutional lending policies, preservation issues, and payment methods. Large-scale digital repositories have overcome these barriers by making full-text items easily viewable online. HathiTrust improves on this idea by adding robust Bibliographic and Data API's which support integration into local workflow, for example the inclusion of links in local catalog records or searchable metadata.

This paper will evaluate the HathiTrust Digital Library within the context of ILL. The authors will review the impact on international lending and how Hathi might advance digital resource collaboration worldwide, examine how these processes are complicated by intellectual property rights, and discuss what the next steps might be for the ILL community.

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Poul Erlandsen
Head of Section, CULIS in the Diamond
The Royal Library
DENMARK
poer@kb.dk

Helle Brink
Project Manager
The State and University Library, Aarhus
DENMARK
hb@statsbiblioteket.dk

Global Resource Sharing from a European Perspective

During the Spring of 2011 the STARS International Interlibrary Loan Committee conducted an international survey of libraries regarding international ILL issues. Of the respondents 33% were from Europe and this gives us an opportunity to focus on the preliminary findings and areas of concerns raised by European libraries that are engaging in global resource sharing. In 2009 the holdings of all Danish libraries were loaded into WorldCat and most of the major university libraries plus the national library decided to become suppliers with as few restrictions as possible. In this paper we will share our experiences and discuss the possible future for WorldCat as a union catalogue for Europe.

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Linda Frederiksen
Head, Access Services
Washington State University Vancouver
USA
lfrederiksen@vancouver.wsu.edu

Heidi Nance
Head, Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery Services
University of Washington
USA
hnance@u.washington.edu

Margaret Bean
Resource Sharing Librarian
University of Oregon
USA
mbean@uoregon.edu

International Interlibrary Loan: Where we've Been, Where We Are Now and Where Are We Going

With the advent of comprehensive online discovery tools as well as an increase in user sophistication, interlibrary loan (ILL) across national boundaries is becoming an important part of resource sharing. This paper will provide an overview of the history of international ILL, discuss how international ILL currently operates, and propose scenarios for its future. The authors will use the business analysis techniques of PEST (Political, Economic, Sociological and Technology) and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) to outline which factors influence the success of current ILL practices and which will have the greatest impact on international ILL in the future.

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Matthew R. Goldner
Product & Technology Advocate
OCLC
goldnerm@oclc.org

Katie Birch
Portfolio Manager, Delivery Services
OCLC

Resource sharing in a cloud computing age

Cloud computing is changing how businesses operate. It offers libraries new opportunities for collaboration and sharing, while also promising cost savings and improved workflows. The impact of cloud computing is not so much about specific technology, but rather how it helps libraries manage the shift of information from print and physical media to electronic resources. We must ensure a continued environment of cooperation and resource sharing for libraries. By identifying and addressing our common challenges, we can make libraries a continued force in the world of Web-based information services.

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Sharon Howells
Manager, Lending Services
University of Newcastle Library
AUSTRALIA
sharon.Howells@newcastle.edu.au

Cathie Jilovsky
Chief Information Officer
CAVAL Ltd
AUSTRALIA.
cathie.jilovsky@caval.edu.au

Light at the End of the Tunnel: Transitioning from One Interlending System to Another

In 2010, two Australian libraries made the unusual decision to move from one successfully operating interlending system to another equally successful interlending system. Why? How? What was involved?

This paper will examine the circumstances that led to this decision and outline the progression from review and analysis of interlending systems available in the Australian marketplace, to the detailed project management and the transition to and implementation of the new system. Issues discussed will include the preparation, planning, the anticipated and real impact on the library user experience, consultations and collaborations required to achieve a successful transition, as well as some of the trials and tribulations experienced along the way.

An overview of the Australian resource sharing environment, a complex mixture of ISO ILL-based local systems run by libraries and consortia alongside a nationwide network of libraries using the Libraries Australia Document Delivery (LADD) System, and the sophisticated interoperability gateway that manages transactions and payments between libraries, will be included.

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Sangeeta Kaul
Network Manager
DELNET (Developing Library Network)
INDIA
sangskaul2003@yahoo.co.in

Breaking the Global Barriers of International Interlending and Document Supply : A Road Map for Libraries and Library Networks

In the era of current information technology, the need for information has increased significantly. The article focuses on the history, barriers, proposed solutions, guidelines and framework for preparing a roadmap for effective and efficient functioning of the interlending and document supply services by various kinds of libraries and information centers. The author will approach nearly 100 libraries and library networks from various regions of the world to cull out the major issues affecting the global ties for international interlending and document supply. The article will highlight the barriers including availability of materials in electronic form, language barriers in sending the requests, lack of UNICODE compliance for multilingual materials; electronic delivery of materials, copyright issues, and financial barriers. The article also recommends solutions in bridging up the divide and to break the barriers by introducing some changes at the global level. The role of library networks, which can play a pivotal role in promoting interlending and document supply at the global level, is also highlighted.

 

Kenneth Kinslow
Resource Delivery Librarian
University of Notre Dame
USA
kinslow.2@nd.edu

From Russia with Love: Obtaining Russian Materials via Interlibrary Loan

Handling interlibrary loan requests for Russian-language materials is always a challenge; however, prospects for obtaining such material from libraries in the United States and overseas have improved dramatically. In addition to the excellent collections at Harvard University, the Hoover Institute at Stanford University, and the Library of Congress, the University of Illinois' Slavic Reference Service is a great resource for solving problem citations and answering reference questions. The National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg and the Russian State Library in Moscow both respond to ILL requests; although the web sites of both libraries can be intimidating, the English interfaces enable you to get started finding the information you need. Other great sources for Russian-language materials that are sometimes overlooked include the national libraries of Finland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and other countries that were once part of the former Soviet Union or the old Russian Empire. In short, despite the challenges, you can find what you need!

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Lars Leon
Head of Resource Sharing and Delivery Services
University of Kansas Libraries
USA
lleon@ku.edu

Nancy Kress
Head of Libraries Resources Supply Chain Manager
University of Nevada Las Vegas Libraries
USA
nancy.kress@unlv.edu

Looking at Resource Sharing Costs Internationally: a detailed study comparing costs in multiple countries

The electronic landscape in which libraries operate has changed user expectations for interlibrary loan. Immediate access to many electronic items at point of use has resulted in user demand for faster turnaround for physical materials. This in turn has led to increased costs for ILL technology, staffing, and shipping.

In 2002, Association of Research Libraries completed an ILL cost study that libraries and vendors continue to refer to when considering new services and alternate workflows. The library environment has changed dramatically since that study. For example, new models such as purchase on demand are being considered. To make more effective decisions we need an updated view of what it really costs for the different resource sharing services as well as the acquisitions process.

The authors are currently performing a cost study of ILL services in North American libraries, planned for completion in May 2011. The study will be extended to include libraries outside the US as well. This paper will provide a comparison of ILL costs and trends between libraries from different countries. With this information, libraries can more effectively analyze their own costs. In addition, the authors will present information gathered from this research to help identify areas that the international ILL community can explore as a group for more effective use of resources on a larger scale.

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Collette Mak
Head, Resource Access and Delivery
University of Notre Dame
USA
cmak@nd.edu

Add to Cart? Self-Service, Online Shopping and the Growth of Interlibrary Loan Among the Association of Research Libraries in the United States

Interlibrary loan has grown over 600% in the 35 years since the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) began tracking activity. Why is ILL growing among ARL libraries while ILL traffic is flat or declining in other countries? In addition to a robust library infrastructure that encourages and supports resource sharing, ARL library users have been trained by commercial sites to use and expect self-service. This paper traces the growth of the commercial self-service market with advancements in ILL that have contributed to the growth of resource sharing in the United States and transformed ILL into a mission-critical service for academic libraries.

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Silvana Mangiaracina
Head
CNR Bologna Area Research Library
ITALY
mangiaracina@area.bo.cnr.it

Alessandro Tugnoli
Senior Analyst
CNR Bologna Area Research Library
ITALY
a.tugnoli@area.bo.cnr.it

NILDE Reloaded: A New System Open to International Interlibrary Loan

NILDE version 4.0 was released in 2010 and introduced many innovative features for libraries and end-users. In response to feedback from users, many enhancements have been added during the 12 months since the software was first launched.

Librarians have to face several new challenges in interlibrary loan, such as sharing of electronic resources, licensing, and international ILL. In this paper we present the new concepts that have been introduced in the NILDE system and that may contribute to shape a different and more effective way of resource sharing among Italian libraries. These include:

  • The catalogs where libraries expose their holdings: NILDE offers the possibility to link to any collective or national catalog via Z39.50 and retrieve library holdings in MARC21 and XML format. Print, electronic and consortial holdings are managed.
  • The ranking of lending libraries: a new ranking algorithm suggests the most suitable prospective supplier, based on a principle of maintaining the system in equilibrium between borrowing and lending requests.
  • The multilingual user-interface: the NILDE user-interface has been redesigned and is provided currently in Italian, English and French.

These features make NILDE a suitable system to help librarians face the new challenges, to support other library networks around the world and to support international ILL.

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Dennis Massie
Program Officer
OCLC Research
USA
massied@oclc.org

Interlending Trending: A Look Ahead from Atop the Data Pile

Ten years ago some observers were talking about how e-journals and direct consortial borrowing were going to put interlibrary loan out of business. And yet the aggregate number of filled ILL requests among ARL libraries has risen steadily nearly every year since then, from about 3.8 million in 1999 to about 4.6 million in 2008. What will the next five years bring? Will increased library spending on e-books make interlibrary loan less relevant, perhaps even extinct? Or will the enhanced discovery and assessment capabilities of digital aggregations such as HathiTrust actually lead to more demand for print? What effect will the movement toward shared regional print repositories, with the resulting "managed scarcity" of copies across the system, have on a typical user's reliance upon a library's ILL operation? What role will copyright play in the near-term future of collection sharing? This paper will offer educated guesses about these and other questions regarding resource sharing in the digital age, based upon current happenings in the field seasoned with recent data mining exercises conducted by OCLC Research.

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Margarita Moreno
Manager, Document Supply Service
National Library of Australia
AUSTRALIA
mmoreno@nla.gov.au

Streamlining Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery Workflows: Tools, Techniques and Outcomes

The National Library of Australia offers interlibrary loan and document delivery services from six different work units across the Library based on format, for example archives and manuscripts, pictures, maps etc.

In 2009, the National Library undertook a thorough review of interlibrary loan and document delivery workflows across the whole Library, using Business Process Modelling Notation to identify areas for improvement. The purpose of the review was to develop a new integrated approach, offering improved turnaround times for clients by reducing administrative functions and improving request management processes. This resulted in a comprehensive report with over 70 recommendations. In December 2009 the Library commenced a project to implement these recommendations, which is due for completion in April 2011.

To manage the project it was agreed to break it into a series of sub-projects, which included:

  • Redevelopment of the Copies Direct service. This will improve the user experience requesting material from the Library's collections, including allowing request of multiple items in a single transaction incorporating e-payment
  • Upgrading and enhancing the Relais system used to manage Interlibrary loan/document delivery and Copies Direct requests. It will enable us to use Relais to manage the entire request flow from receiving the request, sending it for preservation treatment or digitization, and then delivering the copy to the user
  • Improvements to workflows to complement the changes made to the systems underpinning the request flow
  • Policy changes to simplify workflows and provide clear guidance to staff

This paper provides a brief overview of Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) and its use in the National Library to evaluate workflows and reports on implementation of the recommendations, highlighting the lessons learned.

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James G. Neal
Vice-President for Information Services and University Librarian
Columbia University
USA
http://www.columbia.edu/~jneal

Radical Collaboration and the Future of the Academic Library: The 2CUL Project as Case Study

Cooperation is part of the professional DNA of academic libraries, and is a constant for service, success and survival. Academic libraries will be increasingly defined by new and energetic relationships and combinations, a radicalization of the working relationships among libraries, between libraries and the communities they serve, and in new entrepreneurial partnerships. The context for collaboration combines rapidly shifting user requirements, a need to rethink redundant inefficient library operations, an increasing emphasis on unique resources, a requirement to achieve scale and network effects through aggregation, a mandate for systemic change, and unprecedented economic pressures. This paper will explore these developments in the context of the 2CUL partnership between Columbia and Cornell University Libraries, a transformative and enduring partnership between two major academic research libraries based on a broad integration of resources, collections, services, infrastructure and expertise.

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Beth Posner
Head of Interlibrary Loan Services
The CUNY Graduate Center
USA
bposner@gc.cuny.edu

The Ethics of Library Resource Sharing in the Digital Age

Copyright laws seek to protect the rights and reasonable interests of a variety of stakeholders. These include fair financial compensation of the authors and publishers who create and distribute information, the fair use needs of students, researchers and others who desire access to information, and the broader public interest served by relatively open dissemination of knowledge. These ethical considerations, among others, help inform the ways in which copyright laws around the world allow and limit the sharing of information by libraries. However, several issues related to the advent of the digital age now complicate this status quo. Increasingly, libraries are licensing online data for use by patrons, instead of exclusively buying print books and serials. As a result, publishers and aggregators are sometimes seeking to limit the dissemination of such data through interlibrary loan, out of concern that it is too easy to share information online and in order to protect potential sources of revenue. At the same time, the development of relatively inexpensive electronic publishing could, in the not-too-distant future, allow universities themselves to become primary publishers who no longer have to buy back their faculty members' work or impose similar ILL restrictions on libraries. Caught in the middle, librarians must be prepared to negotiate with publishers, advocate lawmakers concerning possible revisions to copyright laws and, in the meantime, develop lending and borrowing policies for electronic information that reflect the ethical principles that inform the spirit of the laws governing print publications.

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Ed Rivenburgh
IDS Project Director
State University of New York at Geneseo
USA
edr@geneseo.edu

Cyril Oberlander
Interim Director
State University of New York at Geneseo
USA
cyril@geneseo.edu

The IDS Project: Community. Innovation. Excellence

The IDS Project idsproject.org is a unique cooperative of 60 academic and research libraries in New York State. More than just reciprocal resource sharing, the IDS Project has become renowned for its open source software, ILLiad enhancements & best practices, and supportive community. This paper will explain how the IDS Project converted vision to shared action and review the variety of projects and how they might benefit your library, including:

The IDS Project values building "A unified community of trust and support built around a critical and clearly understood purpose: effective resource sharing" because working together, the essence of resource sharing, is also at the center of the successful transformation of libraries.

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Dr. Iqbal Singh
Librarian
Malout Institute of Management and Information Technology
Malout
INDIA
librarianmimit@yahoo.com

Bhupinder Singh
Professional Assistant
Central University of Punjab
INDIA
bhupinder82@gmail.com

Resource Sharing via Networking: A Study of North-West Indian University Libraries

The authors report on an assessment of resources, facilities and services of North-West Indian university libraries in an attempt to determine the feasibility and potential of effective resource sharing via networking, identify the current state of the art, and propose a model for university library networking. This study is based on primary data collected from 12 main university libraries and their 881 users through personal visits, questionnaires and interviews. All sample universities have distinct strengths based upon various parameters and most have duplication of their reading materials.

Survey findings indicate that interest in library cooperation among the university librarians appears to be increasing, although most of the 6 cooperative activities already in place have not yet become operational among all libraries. Moreover, the survey indicates that of 33 activities listed, 22 were rated as highly desirable and 10 desirable; only one activity was not desirable. Respondents agreed that lack of institutional leadership and finances were the crucial problems most necessary to be dealt with. All university libraries are interested to join the network, whereas 11 libraries are prepared to join and 10 are ready to extend financial support.

The user survey shows that user expectations are increasing and that users are not fully satisfied with the present situation of the libraries and their cooperative activities. There is an immediate need for resource sharing and networking among North-West Indian university libraries. This study proposes a network model, which would ensure a reduction in all round costs and elimination of duplicate materials and efforts.

 

Rob Tiessen
Head of Access Services
University of Calgary
CANADA
tiessen@ucalgary.ca

How Copyright Affects Interlibrary Loan and Electronic Resources in Canada

In Canada, the Copyright Act, copyright collectives such as Access Copyright, and the terms of negotiated license agreements all affect library practice. This paper will discuss how interlibrary loan practices and access to electronic resources are influenced by these three factors.

For example, the Copyright Act does not allow digital interlibrary loan. Neither does the recent interim Access Copyright tariff, but the 2004 CCH Supreme Court Judgment seems to allow libraries a path forward for digital interlibrary loan. How do Canadian libraries choose between these conflicting messages?

One of the biggest licensing issues facing Canadian libraries are electronic licenses that require Canadian libraries to follow American rather than Canadian copyright law. Two such examples are the CONTU guidelines and section 108 (g) (2) of US Copyright Law. There is nothing equivalent to section 108 (g) (2) in Canadian law, yet it is not uncommon to find Canadian libraries that have signed licenses requiring them to follow this and other parts of American law. How do Canadian libraries deal with conflicting requirements between the license and Canadian law?

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Heather Weltin
Head of Access Services
University of Wisconsin - Madison
USA
hweltin@library.wisc.edu

Tina Baich
Assistant Librarian
Interlibrary Services / Bibliographic & Metadata Services
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
USA
cbaich@iupui.edu

Going Global: An International Survey of Lending and Borrowing Across Borders

In Fall 2009, the ALA RUSA STARS International ILL Committee published "Lending and Borrowing Across Borders: Issues and Challenges with International Resource Sharing" in the journal Reference and User Services Quarterly. This article was the result of a survey of U.S. libraries that participated in international lending and borrowing. Building on the findings from the U.S. survey, the Committee conducted an international survey of libraries regarding international ILL issues in 2011. This paper will focus on the preliminary findings from the survey and areas of concerns raised by international suppliers. Comparing the two surveys, the report will focus on similarities across the world for international ILL, and ways to improve resource sharing globally.

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Lynn Wiley
Head of Acquisitions
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
USA
lnwiley@illinois.edu

Elizabeth Clarage
Director
CARLI Collections Services
USA
clarage@uillinois.edu

Building on Success: extending the CARLI I-Share access to just in time purchases

CARLI is a consortium of 76 academic libraries across the state of Illinois who share one union catalog in addition to each library's local online catalog. That union catalog, known as I-Share, contains over nine million unique bibliographic records and more than 32 million item records that are accessible to all I-Share library patrons and available for 24-hour delivery to the patron's home institution. The combination of this enormous consortial collection and I-Share's resource sharing services means that I-Share library patrons have ready access to a collection that is larger than most of the world's greatest research libraries.

This paper reviews the results of an analysis of duplicate holdings among multiple I-Share member libraries. That study led in turn to a pilot program in which titles not owned by I-Share libraries or titles whose demand exceeded the number of available copies were purchased on demand and then made available to I-Share patrons through interlibrary loan. The paper reviews the planning process for this pilot and the subsequent circulation frequencies for those titles purchased on demand. As this abstract is being written, new plans are under way for a further expansion of the program to move it from a pilot phase to a potential service. Many libraries are facing shrinking budgets that are limiting their print monograph purchases, or are switching to more e-book formats that are then harder to share with consortial partners. A "Just in Time" consortial purchase plan helps to focus attention on the issues libraries face while maintaining vibrant resource sharing programs in the digital age.

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Xiaoxia Yao
Secretary General
CALIS
CHINA
yaoxx@calis.edu.cn

CALIS ILL and DDS Systems: a successful way of resource sharing

Even in the digital age, interlibrary loan and document delivery are two of the primary forms of resource sharing. As one of public component of "project 211", CALIS aims to provide high-level services for teaching and academic research and to promote, maintain and improve resource sharing among academic libraries in China.

CALIS has been dedicated to establishing an "open, peer-to-peer" interlibrary loan (ILL) and document delivery service (DDS) system from the very beginning. That means any two members of CALIS can initiate and process ILL/DDS transactions via the service system, the principal achievements of which include: 1) a single ILL/DDS network, composed of about 60 supplying libraries; 2) a unified ILL/DDS system based on the ISO10160/10161 ILL standard; and 3) one framework for collaboration, the Coordination Group of ILL Service in Chinese Academic Libraries. This paper will review these achievements one by one and consider the network's future development as well.

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